## Peer Reviewed Scientific Papers

#### MIF Tutorials and Primers:

- I. R. Lindemuth and R. C. Kirkpatrick, “Parameter space for magnetized fuel targets in inertial conﬁnement fusion,” Nucl. Fusion, vol. 23, p. 263, 1983.
- R. C. Kirkpatrick, I. R. Lindemuth, and M. S. Ward, “Magnetized target fusion: An overview,” Fusion Tech., vol. 27, p. 201, 1995.
- M.M. Basko, A.J. Kemp, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, “Ignition conditions for magnetized target fusion in cylindrical geometry,” Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 40, No. 1, p. 59 (2000).
- Y. C. F. Thio, “Status of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112, 042084 (2008).
- Y. C. Francis Thio, “Magneto-inertial Fusion: An Emerging Concept for Inertial Fusion and Dense Plasmas in Ultrahigh Magnetic Fields,” Paper presented at IFSA 2007, Kobe, Japan. http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1159661. Full-length version of Y. C. F. Thio, “Status of the U.S. program in magneto-inertial fusion,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112, 042084 (2008).
- Irvin R. Lindemuth, The Ignition Design Space of Magnetized Target Fusion, Phys. Plasmas, accepted for publication, published online December 14, 2015.
- Lindemuth, I. R. and Siemon, R. E. The fundamental parameter space of controlled thermonuclear fusion. Am. J. Phys. 77, 407, 2009.

#### PJMIF and Coaxial Plasma Gun Concept Papers and Primers:

- Thio, Y. C. F., Panarella, E., Kirkpatrick, R. C., Knapp, C. E., Wysocki, F., Parks, P. and Schmidt, G., “Magnetized target fusion in a spheroidal geometry with standoff drivers,” In: Proc. of the Second Int. Symp. on Current Trends in Int. Fusion Research, (ed. E. Panarella). Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada, p. 113, 1999.
- Thio, Y. C. F., Knapp, C. E., Kirkpatrick, R. C., Siemon, R. E. and Turchi, P. J., “A physics exploratory experiment on plasma liner formation,” J. Fusion Energy, 20, 1, 2001.
- Y. C. F. Thio, B. Freeze, R. C. Kirkpatrick, B. Landrum, H. Gerrish, G. R. Schmidt, “High-energy space propulsion based on magnetized target fusion,” AIAA Paper 99-2703, 35th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Los Angeles, California, 20-24 June, 1999.
- S. J. Langendorf and S. C. Hsu, “Semi-analytic model of plasma-jetdrivenmagneto-inertialfusion,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 24, p. 032704, 2017.
- Y. C. Francis Thio, Jason T. Cassibry, Thomas E. Markusic, “Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas,” Paper AIAA-2002-3803, 38th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Indianapolis, Indiana, July 7-10, 2002.
- J. T. Cassibry, Y. C. F. Thio, and S. T. Wu, “Two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic analysis of blow-by in a coaxial plasma accelerator,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 13, p. 053101, 2006.
- Witherspoon, F. D., Case, A., Messer, S. J., Bomgardner, II, R., Phillips, M. W., Brockington, S. and Elton, R., “A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 083506, 2009.
- Hsu, S. C., T. J. Awe, S. Brockington, A. Case, J. T. Cassibry, G. Kagan, S. J. Messer, M. Stanic, X. Tang, D. R. Welch, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Spherically imploding plasma liners as a standoff driver for magnetoinertial fusion,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 1287, 2012
- Knapp, C. E. and Kirkpatrick, R. C., “Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magnetoinertial fusion concept,” Phys. Plasmas 21, 070701, 2014
- Hsu, S. C., “Technical summary of the first U.S. plasma jet workshop,” J. Fusion Energy 28, 246.
- S. C. Hsu, A. L. Moser, E. C. Merritt, C. S. Adams, J. P. Dunn, S. Brockington, A. Case, M. Gilmore, A. G. Lynn, S. J. Messer and F. D. Witherspoon, “Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets,” J. Plasma Phys., vol. 81, 345810201, 2015.
- S. C. Hsu, “Plasma Liners and the Potential for a Standoff Fusion Reactor” and F. D. Witherspoon, “Plasma Jet Drivers for Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF),” talks given at the ARPA-E workshop on Drivers for Economical Fusion Technologies, Oct. 29–30, 2013, Berkeley, CA; download talks at http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-events/drivers-economical-fusion-technologies-workshop.
- P. McGrath, Spherically Imploding Plasma Liners as a Standoff Magneto-Inertial-Fusion Driver, ARPA-E, May 2014, http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=slick-sheet-project/plasma-liners-fusion
- R. B. Adams, G. Stratham, S. White, B. Patton, Y. C. F. Thio, J. Santarius, R. Alexander, S. Fincher, T. Polsgrove, J. Chapman, A. Phillips. Crewed Mission to Callisto Using Advanced Plasma Propulsion Systems. NASA Technical Report 2004, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, USA. http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20030062121.pdf

#### PJMIF Experimental Papers:

- Y.C.F. Thio, R. Eskridge, M. Lee, J. Smith, A. Martin, T. E. Markusic, J. T. Cassibry, “An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator,”
*AIAA-2002-4269*, 38th AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit, Indianapolis, Indiana, July 7-10, 2002. - S. C. Hsu, A. L. Moser, E. C. Merritt, C. S. Adams, J. P. Dunn, S. Brockington, A. Case, M. Gilmore, A. G. Lynn, S. J. Messer, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Laboratory plasma physics experiments using supersonic plasma jets,”
*J. Plasma Physics,***81**, 345810201 (2015). - Merritt, E. C., Moser, A. L., Hsu, S. C., Adams, C. S., Dunn, J. P., Holgado, A. M. and Gilmore, M. “Experimental evidence for collisional shock formation via two obliquely merging supersonic plasma jets,”
*Phys. Plasmas,***21**, 055703, 2014. - S. Messer, A. Case, L. Wu, S. Brockington, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Nonlinear compressions in merging plasma jets,” Phys.
*Plasmas*, 20, 032306 (2013). - Case A., S. Messer, S. Brockington, L. Wu, F. D. Witherspoon,1 and R. Elton, “Merging of high speed argon plasma jets,”
*Phys. Plasmas*, 20, 012704 (2013) - Li, C. K. et al., “Structure and dynamics of colliding plasma jets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.
**111**, 235003, 2013. - F. D. Witherspoon, S. Brockington, A. Case, S. J. Messer, L. Wu, R. Elton, S. C. Hsu, J. T. Cassibry, and M. A. Gilmore, “Development of MiniRailguns for the Plasma Liner Experiment,”
*Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc*., vol. 56, p. 311, 2011. - S. Brockington, A. Case, S. Messer, L. Wu, and F. D. Witherspoon, “The HyperV 8000 µg, 50 km/s plasma railgun for PLX,”
*Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc.,*vol. 57, p. 134, 2012. - S. C. Hsu, E. C. Merritt, A. L. Moser, T. J. Awe, S. J. E. Brockington, J. S. Davis, C. S. Adams, A. Case, J. T. Cassibry, J. P. Dunn, M. A. Gilmore, A. G. Lynn, S. J. Messer, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Experimental characterization of railgun-driven supersonic plasma jets motivated by high energy density physics applications,”
*Phys. Plasmas*,**19**, 123514, 2012. - Merritt, E. C., Lynn, A. G., Gilmore, M. A., Thoma, C., Loverich, J. and Hsu, S. C. “Multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometry of supersonic plasma jets,”
*Rev. Sci. Instrum*.**83**, 10D523, 2012. - Merritt, E. C., Moser, A. L., Hsu, S. C., Loverich, J. and Gilmore, M., “Experimental characterization of the stagnation layer between two obliquely merging supersonic plasma jets,”
*Phys. Rev. Lett.*,**111**, 085003, 2013 - Merritt, E. C., Lynn, A. G., Gilmore, M. A. and Hsu, S. C. “Multi-chord fiber-coupled interferometer with a long coherence length laser,”
*Rev. Sci. Instrum*,**83**, 033506, 2012. - Liu, W. and Hsu, S. C., “Ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of unmagnetized dense plasma jet injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma,”
*Nucl. Fusion***, 51**, 073026, 2011. - Lynn, A. G., Merritt, E., Gilmore, M., Hsu, S. C., Witherspoon, F. D. and Cassibry, J. T., “Diagnostics for the plasma liner experiment,”
*Rev. Sci. Instrum*.**81**, 10E115, 2010. - I. N. Bogatu, S. A. Galkin, J. S. Kim, Y. C. F. Thio, “Hyper-Velocity Fullerene-Dusty Plasma Jets for Disruption Mitigation,”
*J. Fusion Energy*, 2014. - A. L. Moser and S. C. Hsu, “Experimental characterization of a transition from collisionless to collisional interaction between head-onmerging supersonic plasma jets,”
*Phys. Plasmas*, vol. 22, p. 055707, 2015. - C. S. Adams, A. L. Moser, and S. C. Hsu, “Observation of RayleighTaylor-instability evolution in a plasma with magnetic and viscous effects,”
*Phys. Rev. E*, vol. 92, p. 051101(R), 2015. - S. C. Hsu, S. J. Langendorf, K. C. Yates, J. P. Dunn, S. Brockington, A. Case, E. Cruz, F. D. Witherspoon, M. A. Gilmore, J. T. Cassibry, R. Samulyak, P. Stoltz, K. Schillo, W. Shih, K. Beckwith, and Y. C. F. Thio, “Experiment to Form and Characterize a Section of a Spherically Imploding Plasma Liner,” (Submitted for publication, September, 2017).

#### PJMIF Modeling Papers:

- Knapp, C. E. and Kirkpatrick, R. C., “Possible energy gain for a plasma-liner-driven magnetoinertial fusion concept,”
*Phys. Plasmas*,**21**, 070701, 2014 - J. T. Cassibry, R. J. Cortez, S. C. Hsu, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Estimates of conﬁnement time and energy gain for plasma liner driven magnetoinertial fusion using an analytic self-similar converging shock model,”
*Phys. Plasmas*, vol. 16, p. 112707, 2009. - T. J. Awe, C. S. Adams, J. S. Davis, D. S. Hanna, S. C. Hsu, and J. T. Cassibry, “One-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic scaling studies of imploding spherical plasma liners”,
*Physics of Plasmas*,**18**, 072705 (2011) - J. T. Cassibry, M. Stanic, S.C. Hsu, F.D. Witherspoon and S. I. Abarzhi, ”Tendency of spherically imploding liners formed by merging plasma jets to evolve toward spherical symmetry,”
*Phys. Plasmas*, 19, 052702 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4714606 - Cassibry, J. T., Stanic, M. and Hsu, S. C., “Ideal hydrodynamic scaling relations for a stagnated imploding spherical plasma liner formed by an array of merging plasma jets,”
*Phys. Plasmas***20**, 032706, 2013 - Davis, J. S., Hsu, S. C., Golovkin, I. E., MacFarlane, J. J. and Cassibry, J. T. One dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of imploding spherical plasma liners with detailed equation-of-state modeling. Phys. Plasmas
**19**, 102701, 2012 - C. Thoma, D. R. Welch, R. E. Clark, N. Bruner,1 J. J. MacFarlane, and I. E. Golovkin. Two-fluid electromagnetic simulations of plasma-jet acceleration with detailed equation-of-state, Phys. Plasmas 18, 103507 (2011)
- Santarius, J. F. Compression of a spherically symmetric deuterium-tritium plasma liner onto a magnetized deuterium-tritium target. Phys. Plasmas
**19**, 072705, 2012 - H. Kim, L. Zhang, R. Samulyak, and P. Parks, “On the structure of plasma liners for plasma jet induced magnetoinertial fusion,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 20, p. 022704, 2013.
- H. Kim, R. Samulyak, L. Zhang, and P. Parks, “Influence of atomic processes on the implosion of plasma liners,”
*Phys. Plasma***19**, 082711 (2012). - G. Kagan, X. Tang, S. C. Hsu, and T. J. Awe, “Bounce-free spherical hydrodynamic implosion,”
*Phys. Plasmas***18**, 120702 (2011). - R. Samulyak, P. Parks, and L. Wu, “Spherically symmetric simulation of plasma liner driven magnetoinertial fusion,” Phys. Plasmas, vol. 17, p. 092702, 2010. 10.1063/1.3481461
- T. Cassibry, R. J. Cortez, S. C. Hsu, and F. D. Witherspoon, “Estimates of confinement time and energy gain for plasma liner driven magneto-inertial fusion using an analytic self-similar converging shock model,”
*Phys. Plasmas***16**, 112707 (2009) - P. B. Parks, On the efficacy of imploding plasma liners for magnetized fusion target compression, Phys. Plasmas
**15**, 062506, 2008. - J. T. Cassibry, Y. C. Francis Thio, T. E. Markusic, S. T. Wu, Numerical Modeling of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Thruster Experiment, J. Propulsion and Power, 22, p. 628, 2006.
- J. Loverich and A. Hakim, “Two-dimensional modeling of ideal merging plasma jets,” J. Fusion Energy, vol. 29, p. 532, 2010.
- J. T. Cassibry, R. Cortez, C. Cody, S. Thompson, and L. Jackson, “Three dimensional modeling of pulsed fusion for propulsion and terrestrial power using smooth particle ﬂuid with maxwell equation solver (SPFMaX),” in 53rd AIAA/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, AIAA Propulsion and Energy Forum, 2017, https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2017-4677.
- R. Samulyak, J. Du, J. Glimm, and Z. Xu, “A numerical algorithm for MHD of free surface ﬂows at low magnetic Reynolds numbers,” J. Comp. Phys., vol. 226, p. 1532, 2007.
- J. J. MacFarlane, I. E. Golovkin, and P. R. Woodruff, “HELIOS-CR – a 1-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics code with inline atomic kinetics modeling,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Transfer, vol. 99, p. 381, 2006. [40] J. J. MacFarlane, “VISRAD–A 3-D view factor code and design tool for high energy density physics experiments,” J. Quant. Spect. Rad. Transfer, vol. 81, p. 287, 2003.
- K. Beckwith, S. A. Veitzer, S. McCormick, J. Ruge, L. N. Olson, and J. C. Cahoun, “Fully implicit ultrascale physics solvers and application to ion source modeling,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., vol. 43, p. 957, 2015.

#### Beat-Wave Current Drive:

- D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, C. Thoma, N. Bruner, D. V. Rose, and S. C. Hsu, “Simulations of Magnetic Field Generation in Unmagnetized Plasmas via Beat-Wave Current Drive,”
*Phys. Rev. Lett.***109**, 225002 (2012). - D. R. Welch, T. C. Genoni, C. Thoma, D. V. Rose, and S. C. Hsu. Particle-in-cell simulations of laser beat-wave magnetization of dense Plasmas, Phys. Plasmas 21, 032704 (2014)
- Ghizzo, P. Bertrand, M. Shoucri, T. W. Johnston, E. Fijalkow’, M.R. Feix, V.V. Demchenko, Study of laser-plasma beat wave current drive with an eulerian vlasov code, p. 45 – 65, Nuclear Fusion, vo1.32, no.1 (1992).
- J. H. Rogers and D. Q. Hwang, Measurements of Beat-Wave-Accelerated Electrons in a Toroidal Plasma, PRL 68 (26), p. 3877, 1992.
- P. Bertrand, A. Ghizzo, T. W. Johnston, M. Shouri, E. Fijalkow and M. R. Feix, A nonperiodic Euler-Vlasov code for the numerical simulation of laser-plasma beat wave acceleration and Raman scattering, p. 1028, Phys. Fluids B, 2 (5), 1990.